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Re: Biografia oficial de Jose Eduardo dos Santos, presidente de Angola
BIOGRAFIA DE SUA EXCELENCIA SR ENG JOSE EDUARDO DOS SANTOS, PRESIDENTE DA REPULICA DE ANGOLA
JOSÈ EDUARDO DOS SANTOS, Presidente da República de Angola, nasceu a 28 de Agosto de 1942, filho de Eduardo Avelino dos Santos e de Jacinta José Paulino. Casado com Ana Paula dos Santos. Concluiu o ensino secundário em Luanda (Liceu Salvador Correia) e integrou-se no MPLA em Novembro de 1961, no exílio. Licenciou-se, em 1969, em Engenharia de Petróleos no Instituto de Petróleo e Gás de Baku (antiga União Soviética).
Regressado ao país, foi Ministro das Relações Exteriores no primeiro Governo constituído depois da Independência de Angola; 2º Vice -Primeiro Ministro, em 1978, e Ministro do Planeamento, em 1978-79. Foi eleito Presidente do MPLA a 20 de Setembro de 1979 e investido no cargo de Presidente da República Popular de Angola até Outubro de 1992, altura em que decorreram as eleições presidenciais das quais saiu vencedor na primeira volta, com 49,6% dos votos.
Datam da primeira metade dos anos 80 as suas primeiras tentativas de criação das condições objectivas e subjectivas para o lançamento de profundas reformas económicas e políticas, com o apoio de jovens quadros saídos das faculdades de Engenharia, Direito e Economia. A situação de guerra não permitiu que essas reformas tivessem uma materialização mais rápida. Os Acordos de Bicesse, surgidos na sequência dessa abertura, acabaram por permitir um interregno no conflito militar criando condições para a adopção de um regime democrático e de mercado livre.
Um dado relevante do início do seu consulado foi o facto de José Eduardo dos Santos nunca ter ratificado nenhuma das sentenças proferidas pelos tribunais quando a pena de morte ainda estava em vigor e ter mesmo contribuído decisivamente para a sua abolição em Angola.
De 1986-92 José Eduardo dos Santos esteve na base dos esforços de pacificação no país e na região, que culminaram com a retirada das tropas invasoras sul-africanas, o repatriamento do contigente cubano, a independência da Namíbia e o fim do regime do "apartheid " na África do Sul.
Eliminados os factores externos que agravavam o conflito interno em Angola, José Eduardo dos Santos lançou as pontes para uma solução negociada, dinamizou a abertura ao pluralismo político e à economia de mercado, e organizou eleições democráticas multi-partidárias (29-30/09/92) sob supervisão internacional.
Na grave crise que se seguiu, provocada pela recusa da Unita em aceitar o veredicto da ONU de que as eleições foram "livres e justas", José Eduardo dos Santos dirigiu pessoalmente a intensa actividade diplomática que culminou no integral reconhecimento internacional do Governo Angolano, impulsionou a instituição dos órgãos de soberania eleitos e organizou a defesa das instituições democráticas, forçando os opositores armados a aceitarem uma solução negociada do conflito, consubstanciada nos Acordos de Lusaka de Novembro de 1994.
Nessa base foi constituído um Governo de Unidade e Reconciliação Nacional, integrando elementos oriundos dos partidos com assento no Parlamento, incluindo da própria oposição armada.
Infelizmente, os Acordos de Lusaka também não conduziram Angola à paz definitiva. Em 1998 as forças rebeldes retornam à guerra, depois de se terem rearmado em segredo, convencidas de que poderiam chegar ao Poder pela via militar.
Novamente, José Eduardo dos Santos revelou-se um estadista à altura do momento delicado que o país atravessava. Decidiu combater a subversão armada sem recorrer ao estado de sítio ou de emergência, mantendo em funcionamento todas as instituições democráticas do país e assegurando assim os direitos, as liberdades e as garantias dos cidadãos.
As próprias Nações Unidas o felicitaram em 29 de Julho de 2000 pelo anúncio de que perdoaria todos os rebeldes armados, incluindo o seu líder, desde que reconhecessem as autoridades legítimas e contribuíssem para a consolidação do regime democrático, para a reconciliação nacional e para o desenvolvimento do país.
Dois anos depois, graças à implementação de um programa multilateral de resistência nacional contra a guerra, de iniciativa do Presidente angolano, foi finalmente alcançado um entendimento entre as chefias militares do Governo e a das forças rebeldes que levaram ao fim definitivo da guerra em Angola, num acto que se cumpriu solenemente em cerimónia realizada em Luanda no dia 04 de Abril de 2002.
Sensivelmente no mesmo período o Presidente Angolano contribuiu de forma decisiva para a estabilização da situação nas Repúblicas de Congo/Brazzaville e Democrática do Congo e para a busca de uma solução política para o conflito militar da região dos Grandes Lagos.
Fonte: site Oficial do Governo da Republica de Angola
Obs: Esta versao e nova.
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Biografia de Jose Eduardo dos Santos - Encyclopedia of World Biography on José Eduardo dos Santos
Encyclopedia of World Biography on José Eduardo dos Santos
José Eduardo dos Santos (born 1942) was a leader of the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) and the second president of Angola following independence in 1975. He guided the country from a Marxist to a democratic socialist form of government.
José Eduardo dos Santos was born on August 28, 1942, in Luanda, the capital of Angola, where his father was a stonemason. Even in school he was an ardent nationalist and worked clandestinely among students for the overthrow of Portuguese colonial rule.
In 1961, at the age of 19, he joined the African nationalist organization, Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA), although it had been banned by the Portuguese authorities and its members persecuted by the political police. Later that same year he fled into exile in Léopoldville (now Kinshasa, Congo) where MPLA had an office. His ability was soon recognized in his appointment as deputy president of the party's youth wing. Two years later he was attached to the MPLA office in Brazzaville, capital of French Congo (now Republic of the Congo).
In 1963 dos Santos, together with several other young Angolans, received a scholarship for study in Moscow at Patrice Lumumba University. In 1969 dos Santos graduated with a degree in petroleum engineering. Mindful of the struggle to which he was returning at home, he stayed another year in the Soviet Union and took a military course in telecommunications and radar. During his student years he also married a Soviet woman.
Young Military and Political Leader
Dos Santos returned to Angola in 1970, and for the next three years he served in the liberation army of MPLA on the war front in Cabinda, a northern territory of Angola. He was appointed as second-in-command of telecommunication services. In 1974 a coup in Lisbon toppled the dictatorial regime, and the independence of Portugal's African colonies at last seemed possible. The rise of dos Santos to the top ranks of MPLA continued. In 1974 he was recognized as number five in the leadership and was appointed to the party's executive committee and to its political bureau.
At the independence of Angola in November 1975, President Agostinho Neto appointed José Eduardo dos Santos as minister of foreign affairs in his first government. For Neto, close colleagues like dos Santos were essential, for they provided a link with the old days when MPLA was chiefly a military organization. In addition, they had the education and skills to turn the party into a governing body which could direct the political and economic reconstruction of the country. In 1977, in a cabinet reshuffle, dos Santos received the important assignment of planning minister and secretary of the National Planning Commission. He also served briefly as first deputy prime minister.
Thrust into Presidency
In September 1979 Angolans were shocked by the death of Agostinho Neto after a battle with cancer. The ruling Central Committee unanimously approved the appointment of José Eduardo dos Santos as the country's second president, as head of MPLA, and as commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces. The appointment was confirmed by a party congress in May 1980. At 37 years of age, dos Santos was one of Africa's youngest presidents.
Although relatively unknown outside of his country, the appointment of dos Santos was less of a surprise in Angola itself. He had been a close adviser of Neto; he was a Kimbundu from Luanda, the ethnic group that had dominated MPLA; he had a wide range of administrative experience compared to many colleagues; his loyalty and service to MPLA over the years were unquestioned; and he was not closely identified with any of the factions within the party.
Reformer Sought Peace, Challenged by War
As president, dos Santos continued the task of economic and political reconstruction begun by his predecessor. His biggest problem was the continuing war against the National Union for the Total Integration of Angola (UNITA), a rival liberation movement during the period of Portuguese rule which never recognized MPLA as the legitimate government of Angola. Many of the human and material resources which Angola desperately needed for internal development had to be diverted to the war against UNITA led by the rebel Jonas Savimbi, who was supported by South Africa and the United States. Within his government, President dos Santos, generally considered to be a moderate, had to balance different viewpoints between those who were committed to supporting Marxist ideology and those who were more pragmatic and willing to sacrifice some ideological purity in order to achieve peace.
Despite dos Santos' efforts to negotiate an end to the war, it raged on. Angola's fate was to be positioned geographically in the midst of other turmoil that fueled continued insurgency within. In 1984 the Angolan and South African governments agreed to a cease-fire to the nearly two-decade-long war along the Angola-Namibia border. An agreement by dos Santos and Cuba's President Fidel Castro to withdraw Cuban troops from Angola quickly followed. The proposition was based on the withdrawal of South African troops from Angola, South African recognition of Namibian independence, and an end to support of Savimbi and UNITA.
New Political Philosophy Emerged
Even though Angola and South Africa maintained their cease-fire agreement, negotiations for Cuban troop withdrawal from Angola and Namibian independence dragged on for years. Meanwhile, Angola's civil war took hundreds of thousands of lives and decimated the economy. As the 1980s went by, the government gradually began to change its Marxist philosophy, established a free market economy, joined the International Monetary Fund, and announced that Angola would adopt a multiparty system and hold elections within three years after reaching a peace settlement. These steps led the United States to join Portugal and the former Soviet Union in actively brokering negotiations between the MPLA and UNITA. Savimbi and dos Santos first agreed to stop fighting in 1989--in what became an off-and-on again cease-fire--which, after a cooling off period, led to free elections.
The long awaited elections took place September 29 and 30, 1992 under United Nations supervision. Dos Santos was the undisputed winner with almost 50 percent (49.7%) of the popular vote versus 40.1 percent received by Savimbi. Savimbi claimed the vote was rigged, and by October 30th UNITA had taken the country into civil war again. More killing and economic devastation followed, further depleting the country of its rich natural resources. The United States continued to hold peace talks to work out an acceptable power-sharing arrangement between UNITA and the dos Santos government. Savimbi refused to give up the territory won through battle, and in so doing lost the United States' support as the U.S. officially recognized the dos Santos government in the Spring of 1993.
Dos Santos addressed the United Nations on its 50th Anniversary, October 22, 1995, expressing appreciation for the understanding and assistance given Angola, particularly its humanitarian aid to refugees and economic assistance to restructure the country. He also praised UN peace keeping forces in Angola for their continued role in disarming UNITA guerillas, as well as for monitoring the long process toward reconciliation within the country.
A good-looking man who smiled easily, José Eduardo dos Santos was reported to be somewhat reserved and not given to speaking or appearing in public more than necessary. One commentator noted, however, that the apparent shyness masked an inner sureness and indefatigable spirit.
Jos Eduardo dos Santos Biography | Encyclopedia of World Biography Biography
Re: Procuro a verdadeira biografia de Jose Eduardo dos Santos
Este cara do Zé Dú nasceu em que Provinia de Angola, e de que tribo ele é?erious concerns (Assis Malaquias suggests the possibility that Eduardo dos Santos was born in São Tomé instead of Luanda) exist has Comrade Dictator Jose Eduardo dos Santos speaks no native language of Angola, furthermore has no native name which makes it virtually impossible to pin point is native origin.
In 1999 UNITA issued a statement concerning the matter:
"The African Angolans issue a firm challenge to Eduardo dos Santos, to produce conclusive proof of his real place of birth and of his parents. UNITA has the right and duty to make available to the Angolan people, the information it possesses related to the true origin of Eduardo dos Santos."
Biography of Jose Eduardo dos Santos
Jose Eduardo dos Santos was born in the Island and Country of Sao Tome in the village of Almeirim where he studied until the fourth class (that is primary School education).
His mother (Jacinta José Paulino) is of descent from people from Guinea and Cape Verde mixed with Sao Tomense after having immigrating to the island country of Sao Tome from Cape Verde due to the draught and hunger affecting that island.
Jose Eduardo dos Santos Father (Avelino Eduardo dos Santos) had originally as his family name Vandunen. The Vandunen are originally descendent from slaves, and they are from a Dutch polygamous father that had several offspring's from different African women.
This name Vandunen comes from the Slaves and says nothing from the culture of Angola.
The Vandunen gathered a reputation for acting as mercenaries, assassins and thieves, this being the main reasons for the Father of Jose Eduardo dos Santos being ashamed of the name Vandunen and removed this name from his full name.
Jose Eduardo dos Santos is not and engineer of petroleum as we claims. He is lying to the people because he only studied until the 6th class in the High School of Salvador Correia in Luanda, after his parents immigrated to Angola.
He worked in a restaurant in Luanda and after an incident of removal and food theft, the Police agency PIDE was requested to apprehend him, thus is when he skipped as a fugitive to the neighbouring Congo.
Once in the Congo the MPLA Comrade Daniel Chipenda placed the thief Jose Eduardo dos Santos in a instruction course of telecommunications listening financed by the KGB, and it was due to this reason that Comrade Agostinho Neto placed him as the chief of the Communications DISA. This was his first work after 1975, and because of this Agostinho Neto placed him to commence fractionising the population and political manipulation of the society in order to establish a Communist State with the aid of the Russians and the Cubans.
Meu caro amigo /a, em parte dou-te toda razão; porque ninguém jamais disse saber em maternidade nasceu José Eduardo, em que escola fez a primária e entre outras questões. Mas eu e o resto dos leitores gostavamos que escreveces em português, para que haja melhor compreenção.